# Megaparsec 4 and 5

Published on February 23, 2016, last updated June 1, 2017

This post is an attempt to summarize progress made by the Megaparsec project from its initial release 25 September 2015 to present day and discuss the planned improvements in version 5.

Upon release Megaparsec received quite positive reception and it’s obviously used now by people, there are some projects on Hackage that depend on it and steady feedback of propositions on issue tracker. Of course it didn’t replace Parsec and I doubt it will ever succeed at this, which is OK.

Some people had doubts that are summarized in this list:

1. There are lots of tutorials explaining how to use Parsec. Megaparsec has none.

2. How do I know that this library is robust and reliable? Maybe it has bugs that have been fixed in Parsec long time ago?

3. What about performance? Is Megaparsec slower than Parsec?

1. Megaparsec has a site now, where several tutorials are published. This, combined with documentation, which is quite good and is kept up-to-date, should be enough to start with most parsing tasks. The tutorials will be updated as Megaparsec becomes more advanced in future versions.

2. I dare to say that Megaparsec can be considered robust and reliable now. Since its initial release, only one bug was reported and it was fixed on the same day with new version of the library published. We have covered 90% of code in our test suite and literally every aspect of functioning is checked and controlled. One person told me that they switched from Parsec to Megaparsec in production with very good results: all tests passed and error messages have become noticeable better.

I was told by another person that his Megaparsec parser hit non-termination bug. He then said that he has no reproducing code anymore. I wonder now whether it was programmer’s fault or it’s a problem in Megaparsec? Either way, it does not really matter because even if it’s a bug in Megaparsec (which I doubt), it will be fixed in timely manner once reported.

3. Megaparsec is not slower than Parsec. Even though version 4.4.0 is a bit slower than initial release it’s still actually faster than Parsec. I would not emphasize speed, though, because if you need speed, then you should probably use attoparsec. Megaparsec is about flexibility.

## Evolution of Megaparsec 4

Megaparsec is not just “fixed” Parsec, it’s a project that moves on and aspires to provide robust and simple solution for all common use-cases, take idea of Parsec to its limits. And it’s not just words, in version 4 we have implemented the following features without accumulating any technical debt (smoothing of API and minor improvements are omitted):

• Improve access to parser state. You can parse something providing your custom initial state (for example you can specify non-standard initial textual position) and then extract actual parser state as well as result of parsing (or parse error). In some cases, when you parse stream of objects (in many . try), you can actually parse them as you get input in chunks, but make no mistake, incremental parsing, although possible in some cases, is just side effect of this new feature, not something Megaparsec is designed to provide.

• New failure function added by popular request. Now it’s possible to report more complex custom parsing errors including several error messages that can be just rendered or extracted from parse error and inspected. Previously users were limited by fail and unexpected in this regard.

• Added native higher-level primitives for indentation-sensitive parsing: indentLevel, nonIndented, and indentBlock. These do not require any additional state to work. They use only internal state of Megaparsec to get current position. Quoting our tutorial:

We state that there are top-level items that are not indented (nonIndented helps to define parsers for them), and all indented tokens are directly or indirectly are “children” of those top-level definitions. In Megaparsec, we don’t need any additional state to express this. Since all indentation is always relative, our idea is to explicitly tie parsers for “reference” tokens and indented tokens, thus defining indentation-sensitive grammar via pure combination of parsers, just like all the other tools in Megaparsec work. This is different from old solutions built on top of Parsec, where you had to deal with ad-hoc state. It’s also more robust and safer, because the less state you have, the better.

This works, but parsing of indentation-sensitive grammars is not solved completely as of version 4.4.0 because line-folding is still not implemented. It will be implemented in version 5.0.0, more about this below.

• tokens and parsers that are based on it (string, string', symbol, …) now backtrack automatically. This means you don’t need to wrap them in try anymore. This does not affect performance in any way. This is done to match the way parse errors are reported for these combinators, because as user gets more control with new features like withRecovery it’s important that position in error message matches actual consumption of input.

• withRecovery primitive parser was added. This allows to recover from parsing errors “on-the-fly” and continue parsing. The errors are not lost, you can get them when parsing is finished or even ignore. Read how to use it in our tutorial.

## What to expect from Megaparsec 5?

We will continue to polish the project. I’m still enthusiastic and thankful to all people who propose new ideas. Version 5 will be incompatible in some things, but switching will be trivial. And here is a list of changes that are planned (it will grow and change, of course):

• Improved error messages for indentation-sensitive parsers. Instead of “incorrect indentation” phrase, errors will indicate if it’s too small or excessive and if precise required indentation is known, it will be displayed, like “incorrect indentation (expected 5, but got 7)”.

• The above-mentioned line-folds will be implemented.

• Functions to advance textual position for given token will be moved from arguments of token and tokens to the Stream type class.

• These functions will be so flexible that users who wish to parse streams of tokens produced by alex or happy will have no trouble at all with “syncing” of error positions or anything else.

• Support for include files. When advancing error position it will be possible to “switch context” to another file and back. When parse errors are reported, stack of files will be shown. How this will affect performance needs to be analyzed.

• Better typing may happen with more active use of semigroups and Natural numbers for things that cannot be negative. This is stimulated by inclusion of semigroups in base-4.9.0.0.

• Some people think that printing a line with ^^^^ showing where parse error happened results for better error messages. Well, it’s trivial to implement as an (optional) utility.

If you would like to propose something incompatible but cool, now is the time.